He find more on https://absolute-woman.com/asian-women/indonesian-women/ opposed some interpretations of Islam that he considers not practical for Indonesians. The Indonesian Ulema Council later issued a fatwa that he had deviated from Islamic teaching. They also reported the threats to Facebook but received no response. Human Rights Watch sent extensive documentation of the abusive online behavior to Facebook in April 2021.
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Women like me, as well as my children, bear the risks and burdens for a primordial identity that has no end. If our dress code is being dictated, how can women be free with other life choices? These protections are included in the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, the Convention of the Rights of the Child, and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Mandatory jilbab rules also undermine the right of girls and women to be free “from discriminatory treatment based upon any grounds whatsoever” under article 28 of Indonesia’s Constitution.
This study elaborates on the possible affecting factors in voting behavior, i.e., religious interpretation, ethnicity, gender, the role of media, perceptions of voters related to candidate’s age and programs, political party affiliation, the role of family, and peers. This research method combines quantitative and qualitative methods with the focus on the qualitative method which is based on interviews and literature analysis. This study collected the data based on online surveys and interviews of Lambung Mangkurat University students, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, where the election was held. The selection for college student respondents aims to focus on young, educated voters and control the variables of education, age, and socioeconomic factors of voters or the effects of social class, which are also often, considered affecting variables in voting behavior. Therefore the factors of education, age, and socio-economic variables are not the focus of analysis. Hence, this study may be transferable to analyze the voting behavior of young, educated, and no-income group which makes up a significant percentage of Indonesian voters. Gender equality is one of the UN sustainable development goals less discussed in soil science in Indonesia.
- The government argued that Islamic principles encourage monogamy and only allow polygamy when a wife allows her husband to re-marry for the benefit of their marriage.
- We additionally uphold the principles of safeguarding and duty of care to the highest standards, ensuring the safety and security of our staff, partners, experts, and beneficiaries in all environments.
- Consul General of the Republic of Indonesia Los Angeles, Umar Hadi encouraged and supported the beginning and establishment of IWA with Founder Melany Lintuuran and Indonesian women community in Los Angeles.
- Several Muslim scholars in Indonesia who have argued the jilbab should not be mandatory have been bullied and faced violence.
- After defendant’s friend abandoned the victim at the café, the defendant told the victim to work as a server but also forced her to have sex with the male clients and kept all payments received for the victim’s services.
Although Indonesia has had a reputation for being moderate, religious conservatism has gained traction in recent years. On Tuesday, for example, the country revised its criminal code to make sex outside of marriage illegal and to expand its blasphemy law. The women behind KUPI hope that the fatwas they help issue will help shape what life is like for women in Indonesia. Ulama are Islamic scholars whose advanced understanding enables them to be spiritual and community leaders. Many work in roles such as running Islamic boarding schools or as preachers. Importantly, ulama can issue fatwas, clarifications or interpretations of the religion. In Indonesia, the top council of ulama holds growing influence over the government; its former chairman is the country’s current vice president.
In addition, since the purpose of marriage is to “achieve peacefulness ,” men are required to first obtain their wives’ consent before engaging in polygamy, thus respecting their wives as legally equal partners. Therefore, the Court rejected petitioner’s claims and held the laws constitutional as they guarantee the recognition of women’s rights and allow husbands to exercise polygamy in accordance with the teachings of Islam. This study set out to determine that Indonesian women who were aged 30 to 34 years old, unmarried, living in urban area, higher education and economic status showed better knowledge of HIV compared to older age, married and living in rural area.
Project to Support the Better Integration of Women in the Haitian National Police
According to the current Sultan, this was in line https://breathedivinely.com/women-in-venezuela-wikipedia/ with his prerogatives; his action was nonetheless criticized by more conservative male family members such as his siblings, who were thus displaced in the line of succession. In Indonesian history, there are records of some prominent women that held and exercised considerable power and influence within their society, although usually reserved exclusively for an elite ruling class. Following the arrival of Islam in Java, Ratu Kalinyamat of Jepara was also a notable female leader. Sultanate of Aceh also recorded several sultanas that ruled the region. Indonesia has recognised several historic national heroines that fought against Dutch colonialism; among others are Nyi Ageng Serang, Martha Christina Tiahahu, Cut Nyak Dhien and Cut Nyak Meutia.
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Of these, the majority were married (76.5%); more than half had completed secondary education (52%) and were lower-mid socioeconomic status (20.1%). More than half had access to a newspaper and or radio at least once weekly, but almost all had access to televisions (95.2%). Nevertheless, violence against women is high in Indonesia and can happen in all places – rich or poor, east or west – and has different manifestations from street harassment and trafficking to domestic violence and workplace harassment. It’s therefore difficult to generalize that Indonesia is an unsafe place for women because it’s an extremely diverse country. There is religious diversity where the eastern-most province of Aceh is the only province in the country where Sharia law is enforced, whereas in the western-most province of West Papua, the dominant religion is Christianity and the ways of life are completely different. They showed Human Rights Watch more than 60 pages of bullying and threats they downloaded from Facebook. Both women and Human Rights Watch reported the threats to Facebook, but no known action was taken for months and Facebook has not revealed the outcome of its investigation.
What’s holding Indonesian women back? Understanding the social norms that limit girls’ ambitions in the world of work
The penal code only criminalizes acts of rape outside marriage unless the wife is underage and incurs injuries as a result. Articles 285 prohibits forcing or threatening force a woman to have sexual intercourse outside of marriage and punishes violators with a maximum penalty of 12 years. Article 286 punishes sexual intercourse with an unconscious or helpless woman with a maximum of nine years imprisonment. If there is a complaint, Article 287 imposes a maximum sentence of nine years imprisonment for “carnal knowledge” of a girl outside of marriage when the man knows or reasonably should presume that she is less than 15 years of age. Prosecutions are triggered automatically when the girl is less than 12 years of age. Article 288 punishes husbands that have “carnal knowledge” of their wives who “are not yet marriageable” if it results in injury , serious injury , or death .
In the pre-dominate Indonesian culture, discussed sexual health or responsible sexual activity are taboo topics, especially for single and unmarried women. Thus, they are less likely to discuss sexual issues particularly topics related to HIV transmission and prevention. A similar with a study conducted in Kenya reported that unmarried women had a higher knowledge of HIV due to they need to secure everything by them self20.
It is true that Indonesia has high rates of violence against women, however, it’s difficult to know the realities of women’s experiences because in the past the data has been somewhat unreliable. This has been due to reasons such as a lack of reporting mechanisms available to survivors of violence and the fact that discussing sexual violence is a taboo and, if reported, can result in stigmatization which limits the number of survivors who have come forward. Alwis said she has frequently received messages on her Facebook page since that time, bullying and intimidating her. I took off my jilbab, wearing short-sleeved shirts to school, although my mother still took me to Islamic prayer and study sessions.